Born on 20 June 1934 in Grabkowo near Warsaw, Poland, deceased on 12 February 2016 in Warsaw.
Professor of physical metallurgy and materials science. His field is the relations between microstructure and mechanical properties of metals, with special interest in the structure of grain boundaries and properties of metals. Contributed over 70 papers in international journals, two monographs and two academic books.
Graduate of the Warsaw University of Technology (1960). In 1959 joined the staff of the Materials Technology Department of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), transformed into the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering in 1975, and eventually, in 1995, into the Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering. 1967 – PhD in physical metallurgy. 1969 – 1970 in the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Cambridge University, UK. 1979 – Associate Professorship, 1989 – full Professorship in materials science in 1981-1987 the Director of the Institute Materials Science and Engineering, elected for two consecutive terms of office. From 1981 to 1987 and then again from 1991 to 1996 a member of the Senate of WUT, member or chairman of various of Senate and University commissions, and since 1981 to now in the University Commission for Professional Ethic.
1990-1994 a member of the Expert Group at the Ministry of Education. Elected in 1991 and again in 1994 to the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN), he was Chairman of the Technical Science Group of the Fundamental Research Commission, and from 1994 to 1997 – Deputy Chairman of the Applied Research Commission. Since 2000 in the Professional Ethic Group of the Minister of Science and Technology.
Member of the Warsaw Scientific Society (1988), a corresponding member of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1991), and a member of The Society for the Advancement of Sciences (1993). Recipient of Knight (1989) and Officer (1997) Cross of the Polonia Restituta Order, and The National Education Medal (1995). Received dr h.c. from Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (1999) and from Warsaw University of Technology (2001).
President and Executive Director of the Foundation for Polish Science from October 1992 till September 2005.
Ongoing programmes financed by the European funds
International Research Agendas
In 2015 the Foundation started to implement the International Research Agendas programme financed by the European fund within the Smart Growth Operational Programme 2014–2020, Measure 4.3. International Research Agendas. The Foundation received over EUR 126 million which allow for providing support to approx. 10 units responsible for the implementation of International Research Agendas.The goal of the programme is to create specialised, world-class research units in Poland applying global best practice in identification of research programmes and topics, HR policy, R&D management, and commercialisation of R&D results. These units will pursue international research agendas, i.e. research programmes created by applicants and members of the international research community who are world-renowned authorities in the field in which the unit specialises.
TEAM Programme – financing for research teams headed by leading scientists
TEAM-TECH Programme – financing for research teams headed by leading scientists carrying out R&D projects related to a new product or production process (technological or manufacturing) of significant importance for the economy; TEAM-TECH Core Facility and TEAM-TECH Core Facility PLUS – financing for research teams headed by leading scientists carrying out R&D projects related to designing and developing research services with the use of advanced research equipment.
POWROTY/REINTEGRATION Programme – financing for projects designed as postdoctoral fellowships, carried out by young doctors (postdocs) returning to scientific research after a break
HOMING Programme – financing for projects designed as postdoctoral fellowships, carried out by young doctors (postdocs) coming to Poland from abroad
Funding for the purchase of specialist equipment
Winners of the FIRST TEAM and INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AGENDAS programme competitions may now apply for funding for the purchase of specialist equipment at the research units where their projects are being carried out.
As part of the competition, funding will be provided for the purchase of specialist equipment, understood as a set of testing, measurement or laboratory devices with a low degree of universality and high technical parameters.
It is possible to purchase equipment necessary for the significant development of a project implemented under the FIRST TEAM or INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AGENDAS programme and/or for the development of the R&D human resources engaged in the project, provided that the unit does not have any equipment that could be used as an alternative, and that gaining access to such equipment in another unit is impossible or unjustified from an economic point of view.
The Foundation for Polish Science is implementing the SG OP Technical Assistance Project for the years 2017–2019 as part of the Smart Growth Operational Programme 2014–2020 co-financed from the funds of the European Regional Development Fund.
The project aims to provide the necessary support in the efforts undertaken by the Foundation for Polish Science with a view to carrying out projects within the SG OP 4th Priority Axis, Measure 4.3 “International Research Agendas” and Measure 4.4. “Increasing the Human Potential in the R&D sector”.
The funding received from the EU for the requirements of the project is PLN 17,941,560.
Implementation of structural funds by FNP: archived programmes
In 2008, the Foundation started to implement the programmes financed by the European Regional Development Fund within the Innovative Economy Operational Programme 2007–2013 (Measure 1.2 “Strengthening the human resources potential of science”). As a beneficiary of the key programmes of the IE OP, the Foundation received the amount of over 100 mln EUR (this funding was spent in 2007–2015).In 2011, the Foundation launched the SKILLS project, funded by the Human Capital Operational Programme (Measure 4.2 “Development of R&D system staff qualifications and improving the awareness of the role of science in economic growth”). By the end of 2015, the Foundation had spent over 35 million zlotys on this project.1. Programmes financed by the European funds within the Measure 1.2 „ Strengthening the human resources potential of science” of the Innovative Economy Operational Programme
TEAM Programme – projects carried out according to priorities included in IE OP by students, PhD students and postdocs in the best research teams in Poland
2. Programmes financed by the European funds within the Measure 4.2 “Development of R&D system staff qualifications and improving the awareness of the role of science in economic growth” of the Human Capital Operational Programme
SKILLS Project – developing the skills of the research & development sector’s employees and PhD students in communication, interdisciplinary cooperation, and research projects management.
The SKILLS project encloses several trainings ran by the best specialists from Poland and abroad as well as the following programmes:
IMPULS competition – promoting applied research and developing scientists’ skills related to the commercialization of research and development results
Trainings Programme – improving reserachers’ work skills by completing an internship at a research performing organisation or a company abroad
eNgage competition – developing researchers’ skills in science communication or presentation of research results for non-scientists
Meetings initiated by the project’s participants – presenting the newest research directions, exchanging thoughts and experience, and integrating the scientific world
Programme Officers Academy – improving the skills of grant and scholarship programmes’ management and tightening the cooperation among science managers in Poland.
Since May, 26th 2014 the Foundation for Polish Science has been operating out of its new headquaters: ul. Krasickiego 20/22 in Warsaw.
The need for a move from the previous FNP headquarters to a new one arose as a result of the considerable development in the Foundation’s programme activity. Since 2008 the FNP has carried out several new programmes financed from European structural funds, and had to double its staff. The previous building was too small to house all members of the staff, so in 2008 we purchased a real estate for office purposes at ul. Krasickiego 20/22. This comprised a ruined 1930s building surrounded with a garden, which had both certainly seen better days. During the II World War it suffered serious damage, and was not rebuilt following the original design. The Foundation acquired the building in a very bad condition. Having received the consent of the Warsaw Conservator of Listed Buildings, we got the go-ahead to rebuild and modernise the property.
It was our intention to create not only a functional place that would satisfy our office needs, but above all – a unique, visually attractive and environmentally friendly building that would both emphasise the prestige of the Foundation and Polish science and become a landmark of the district and city – an open place inspiring various communities.
In 2009 we announced a competition for developing an architectural conception for the modernisation and rebuilding of the building at ul. Krasickiego 20/22 to house the new FNP headquarters. The winner was FAAB Architektura. Building work began in autumn 2012.
The work resulted in a modernised building redeveloped in accordance with the principles of ecological construction, based on revitalisation of existing building materials making maximum use of the old building’s structure, leaving those walls that were not rebuilt after the war and whose technical condition permits their preservation. However, during building work it became clear that, for example, the part of the elevation reconstructed after the war does not meet building norms and was in danger of collapse. Following the renovation the building comprises four floors withoffice space of 1527m2. The modernised building returned to the original, pre-war order of the front elevation, with a street entrance and an original terrazzo stairwell. The revitalised building features modern ecological technological solutions, including a rational management system for water and electric energy. The property has been made more attractive by its “living façade”, i.e. a vertical garden installed on the front elevation.
Solutions used in the building:
Living façade – the new FNP headquarters is Poland’s first building covered in a “living facade” consisting of a 250-m2 elevation garden. Plants are supplied with water and minerals by special irrigation system including a geotextile fabric creating a “foundation” for the vegetation. The weight of the system including vegetation does not exceed 30 kg per square metre. The elevation garden is also a thermal isolator – heating the building in winter and cooling it in summer and thereby reducing its energy needs.
Daylight: an inner atrium running through all floors above ground level provides natural light to the building’s interior. Daylight also reaches the garages equipped with a system of skylights.
The building is fitted with the highest-class energy-saving equipment – heat pumps reducing the need for energy.
Rainwater stored in a retainer tank and then used for flushing toilets.
The Foundation for Polish Science, an independent, non-governmental public benefit organisation, sees as the priorities of its work building of trust in its activities, promoting good scientific practices and observing the highest organisational standards.
This Ethical Code identifies the major values motivating the Foundation for Polish Science since its foundation and contains the fundamental principles which should guide the Foundation’s bodies and all employees as they carry out their duties.
The Foundation for Polish Science is the first organisation in Poland to be recognised by the European Commission with the HR Excellence in Research logo for the implementation of the provisions of the European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers. It is an acknowledgement that procedures applied by the Foundation in granting funds to researchers and collaborating with them are, to a large extent, compliant with the Commission’s recommendations.
The European Charter for Researchers and the Code were adopted by the European Commission in 2005. These two documents contain recommendations defining the role, scope of responsibilities and rights of researchers as well as of their employers and funders. 400 organisations form 33 countries have signed up to the Charter and the Code. In Poland, there are six signatories of these documents. To date, 48 organisations, including the Foundation for Polish Science, have been authorised to use the HR Excellence in Research logo.
Because of the scale of the Foundation’s activity and its importance for the whole of Polish system of funding science, its programmes must be subjected to systematic evaluation. Evaluation serves to analyse the purposefulness, quality and results of the programmes being run, thus also supporting the process of building FNP’s programme strategy.
FNP evaluation is conducted in three forms:
After the completion of an edition of a programme or a significant stage thereof, a review is made of its progress, the results and any problems encountered. Any doubts, remarks and suggestions for the future are then formulated.
Monitoring serves the following purposes:
current analysis of ongoing activity (constituting an “early warning” system about difficulties which may arise),
involvement of coordinators in assessment of the programmes which they run,
periodically conducted evaluation.
Each of the Foundation’s programmes is subjected to internal evaluation every 4–5 years. The purpose of this is to make a careful analysis of the purposefulness and quality of activities undertaken, to identify critical points and to make recommendations for the future.
Internal evaluation includes:
analysis of programme procedures and documents,
surveys of beneficiaries and possibly other people involved in a programme (e.g. reviewers, academic supervisors of scholarship holders),
interviews with beneficiaries and persons involved in the running of programmes,
analysis of statistical data relating to programmes,
analysis of the external context of FNP programmes (comparison with what is offered by other institutions providing support for science).
An objective assessment of the FNP’s programmes is to be ensured by entrusting the task to outside experts – persons independent of the Foundation and recognized as authorities in the scientific community. The purpose of external evaluation is to evaluate the programmes offered by FNP in terms of the Foundation’s role and mission, the needs of the scientific community, the international perspective and the standards of the best foreign institutions financing the development of science.
Reports and evaluation analysis
TEAM POIG and WELCOME laureates evaluation executive summary (March 2016)
In 1991, FNP received PLN 95m as its founding fund (a portion of the Central Fund for Development of Science and Technology, which was liquidated in 1990). Since that time, the Foundation has raised funds for its statutory activity as well as to maintain the value of its funds primarily from operations on the financial market, i.e. by investing assets in financial instruments—primarily bonds, participation units in investment funds, and shares. Through the end of 2011, the Foundation awarded over PLN 408m to science out of the funds generated in this manner.
The Foundation obtained additional funds for supporting science, of over PLN 51m, in 2003 and 2004, pursuant to the Act of 29 March 2000 Amending the Act on Commercialization of Enterprises, which provided that 2% of the proceeds from privatization of wholly owned companies of the State Treasury would be earmarked for contribution to the Foundation’s assets, but under the Act of 1 March 2002 on Changes in Organization and Functioning of Central Governmental Administrative Bodies, the recipient of 2% of the proceeds from further stages of privatization would be the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). Out of the funds obtained through operation of the privatization law, the Foundation established a separate fund earmarked in its entirety to financing domestic stipends for young scientists (the START programme).
Moreover, in 2003 funds in the amount of about PLN 461,400 that were unused in implementation of the Maria Skłodowska-Curie 2nd Common Fund, which served from 1987 until 2000 as the main source for financing scientific cooperation between Poland and the United States, were transferred to the Foundation and earmarked for stipends for foreign fellowships in the exact sciences. In 2004-2007 the Foundation awarded each year one additional foreign stipend out of these funds in the KOLUMB programme.
In 2008 the Foundation began to carry out programmes financed from the European Regional Development Fund under the Innovative Economy Operational Programme 2007-2013 (Measure 1.2, “Strengthening the human resources potential of science”).
In 2011 the Foundation launched the SKILLS project, financed out of funds from the Human Capital Operational Programme (Measure 4.2, “Developing staff qualifications in the R&D sector and increasing the awareness of the role of science in economic growth”).
The Foundation’s financial reports are examined each year by renowned auditing firms and published in the Annual Report, available at FNP’s offices and on its website. They are also submitted to the National Court Register and the competent ministries.
The Foundation’s investment strategy
The fundamental principles governing the Foundation’s financial strategy are aimed at achieving two goals:
Maximizing income, which is a source of financing FNP’s statutory activity
Maintaining the real value of the Foundation’s capital assets over the long term, i.e. protecting them against the results of inflation.
The Foundation’s statutory activity is financed primarily from income from operations on the financial market: capital investments in securities and other financial instruments such as treasury, municipal and corporate bonds, investment fund participation units, and shares in Polish and foreign companies. For many years, following a strategy of effective management of current liquidity, the Foundation has also been an active participant in the bank deposits market.
Until 2008, instances in which the Foundation made use of external sources of finances were sporadic: privatization proceeds released to FNP by the Ministry of Treasury in 2003-2004 (PLN 51.7m); unused funds from the Maria Skłodowska-Curie 2nd Common Fund released to FNP in 2003 (PLN 461,400); assignments by taxpayers of 1% of their personal income tax, since 2004; and individual donations to FNP. In 2008 FNP became the beneficiary of key programmes from the Innovative Economy Operational Programme and ultimately will receive EUR 100m to carry out new programmes in 2008-2015. This means the ability to nearly triple FNP’s annual programme expenditures, previously financed chiefly out of its own funds.
The scope of tax exemptions given to foundations has the greatest impact on their financial situation all over the world. The practice of granting income tax exemptions to foundations is now universal. The issue of the availability of a tax exemption for capital investments of non-governmental organizations in Poland is governed by the Corporate Income Tax Act. Art. 17(1e) specifies the subject of income tax exemptions for taxpayers allocating income for statutory purposes or other purposes identified in this regulation. The Foundation makes use of these exemptions and adjusts its investment strategy accordingly.
This strategy is based on the structure of a portfolio constructed so that a minimum of 50% of the portfolio is made up of safe financial instruments—chiefly treasury bonds, treasury bills, participation units in safe investment funds, and money market instruments. A maximum of 50% of the portfolio may be made up of higher-yielding but also higher-risk instruments, such as shares and participation units or investment certificates in investment funds. The shape of the foregoing structure of the portfolio is based on an anticipated long-term rate of return which, assuming that the level of programme expenditures is maintained at about 5% of the Foundation’s own funds annually and the necessity to cover the Foundation’s operating costs, should—with the additional assumption of protection of equity—be a minimum of 8-9% per annum. Drawing on the experience of Western foundations, FNP diversifies its portfolio, entrusting the management of a significant portion of its own financial assets to several licensed entities authorized to perform asset management services for clients. As of the end of 2010, 85% of FNP’s financial assets were managed externally by 5 licensed entities. The Foundation also holds a portion of its assets (mainly funds derived from the privatization of wholly owned companies of the State Treasury) invested in long-term treasury bonds purchased directly for the Foundation’s account. The dynamics of the market make it necessary to constantly observe changes, compare results, and seek new, more favourable solutions for the investment activity of the Foundation. The immediate plans for changes in the financial strategy consist of including investment certificates of closed funds in FNP’s portfolio, enabling exposure to new fields of investment such as venture capital funds, emerging markets, commodities and real estate.
The selection of firms to manage the Foundation’s assets is conducted through competitive procedures, organized in accordance with the Foundation’s current investment needs and decided by the FNP Management Board. At the present time, FNP’s diversified investment portfolio is structured to take optimal advantage of the potential of global financial markets. In asset management services, the Foundation cooperates with the following firms: Credit Suisse Asset Management SA, ING Investment Management SA, Skarbiec TFI SA and Opera Kwiatkowski i Wspólnicy SKA. FNP also holds participation units in open funds belonging to Opera TFI SA and KBC TFI SA. The chart above depicts the annual rates of return on FNP’s portfolio of financial assets managed externally in 2004–2010, against a benchmark (an index comprised 30% of the WIG index and 70% of the index for 1- to 3-year bonds).